Useful references

SOURCE 1: 

THE KING’S FUND - 17th May 2016
GARDENS AND HEALTH: IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY AND PRACTICE
https://www.kingsfund.org.uk/publications/gardens-and-health

This is a wide-ranging report covering many topics, and with excellent reference section.

“Evidence on the impact of gardens and gardening on health is closely related to the wide array of evidence on ‘green spaces and health’ more generally. Increasing people’s exposure to, and use of, green spaces has been linked to long-term reductions in overall reported health problems (including heart disease, cancer and musculoskeletal conditions). It has also been linked to reduced levels of obesity.”

“The mental health benefits of gardening are broad and diverse. Studies have shown significant reductions in depression and anxiety, improved social functioning and wide effects, including opportunities for vocational development.”

SOURCE 2:

BRITISH HEART FOUNDATION - 29th October 2013
Active lifestyles are the best for the heart
https://www.bhf.org.uk/what-we-do/news-from-the-bhf/news-archive/2013/october/gardening-and-diy

“Everyday activities like gardening could help older people reduce their risk of heart attacks and strokes.

Scientists tracked the health of more than 4,ooo people over the age of 60 for 12 years. They found that people who had the highest levels of physical activity had a lower risk of a heart attack or stroke, even if they weren’t taking part in formal exercise.

As long as they make you feel warmer, breathe harder and make your heart beat faster, activities such as gardening and DIY count towards the 150 minutes of moderate intensity activity recommended for a healthy lifestyle.”

SOURCE 3:

WHO: WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION
World Report on Ageing and Health 2015
http://www.who.int/ageing/events/world-report-2015-launch/en/
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/186463/9789240694811_eng.pdf;jsessionid=5653E9BC914B63A66098A525A608432D?sequence=1

Physical Activity

“Engaging in physical activity across the life course has many benefits, including increased longevity. For example, … people who engaged in 150 minutes per week of physical activity at moderate intensity had a 31% reduction in mortality compared with those who were less active. The benefit was greatest in those older than 60 years.”

“Physical activity has multiple benefits in older age. These include improving physical and mental capacities  (for example, by maintaining muscle strength and cognitive function, reducing anxiety and depression, and improving self-esteem); preventing disease and reducing risk  (for example, of coronary heart disease, diabetes and stroke); and improving social outcomes  (for example, by increasing community involvement, and maintaining social networks and intergenerational links).”

“Physical activity also appears to preserve, and may even improve, cognitive function in people without dementia, reducing cognitive decline by around one third.”

SOURCE 4:

WHO: WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION
Health and sustainable development
Urban green spaces
http://www.who.int/sustainable-development/cities/health-risks/urban-green-space/en/

“Green spaces are important to mental health. Having access to green spaces can reduce health inequalities, improve well-being, and aid in the treatment of mental illness. Some analysis suggests that physical activity in a natural environment can help remedy mild depression and reduce physiological stress indicators.”

SOURCE 5:

SCIENCE DAILY – 11 July 2018
From: Barcelona Institute for Global Health
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/07/180711182741.htm

“Living in a greener neighbourhood is beneficial to your mental health.”

SOURCE 6:

TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY
Health and well-being benefits of plants
https://ellisonchair.tamu.edu/health-and-well-being-benefits-of-plants/

“Being around plants helps people concentrate better in the home and workplace, and improves memory retention.”

“Keeping flowers around the home is an excellent way to lower levels of stress, anxiety and depression.”

“Flowers and ornamental plants increase levels of positive energy and help people feel relaxed, secure and happy.”

“Having flowers around the home and office greatly improves people’s moods and reduces stress-related depression.”

“The presence of plants in hospital recovery rooms and/or views of aesthetically pleasing gardens help patients to heal faster, due to the soothing affects of ornamental horticulture.”

“Patients who physically interact with plants experience a significantly reduced recovery time after medical procedures.”

“People who care for nature are more likely to care for others.”

“Plants can help people to improve their performance at work and at home by increasing their perceived vitality and giving them more feelings of added energy.”

“Ornamental plants produce a positive learning environment, and children who spend time around plants learn better.”

“People who spend more time outside in nature have a more positive outlook on life and better mental health.”

“People who spend time cultivating plants have less stress in their lives.”

SOURCE 7:

CDC: CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION
Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight – 15 May 2015
https://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/physical_activity/index.html?s_cid=tw_ob387

“Regular physical activity has many health benefits including helping to maintain weight, reduce high blood pressure, reduce risk of type 2 diabetes, heart attack, stroke and several forms of cancer. It also reduces arthritis pain and associated disability, reduces risk of osteoporosis and falls, and reduces symptoms of depression and anxiety.”

“Physical activity reduces risks of cardiovascular disease and diabetes beyond that produced by weight reduction alone.”

“Light gardening work that slightly increases your breathing and heart rate can use up around 300 calories in an hour.”

SOURCE 8:

EHP: ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES – 12 July 2018
Residential Surrounding Greenness and Cognitive Decline
https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/doi/10.1289/EHP2875

“Higher residential surrounding greenness may lead to slower cognitive decline.

Cognitive functioning is one of the most important determinants of wellbeing, functioning, and independent living at older age.”

SOUCE 9:

BRITISH HEART FOUNDATION
HEART MATTERS – 12 WAYS TO BEAT LONLINESS
https://www.bhf.org.uk/informationsupport/heart-matters-magazine/wellbeing/dealing-with-loneliness

“If looking after your garden has become too strenuous it doesn’t mean that your gardening days are over. Schemes such as Garden Buddies and match people over the age of 60 with volunteers who’ll help with your garden. It's a great way to get some fresh air and gentle exercise, and rewarding to grow your own flowers and vegetables.”

ALSO SEE: www.gardenbuddies.com, and courses run by the U3A.

SOURCE 10:

THE ORNAMENTAL ROUNDTABLE HEALTH AND HORTICULTURE CONFERENCE 2016
https://www.rhs.org.uk/science/Ornamental-Horticulture-Roundtable/health-and-horticulture-conference-2016

SOURCE 11:

GARDEN ORGANIC & SUSTAIN
The benefits of gardening and food growing for health and wellbeing
https://www.gardenorganic.org.uk/sites/www.gardenorganic.org.uk/files/GrowingHealth_BenefitsReport_0.pdf

Professor Tim Lang: “For a large number of people in our society – children and adults ¬ who live with challenging physical and mental health problems, gardening and community food growing can be especially beneficial. Such activities can relieve the symptoms of serious illness, prevent the development of some conditions, and introduce people to a way of life that can help them to improve their wellbeing in the longer term.”

“This review of scientific literature demonstrates …. regular involvement in gardening:

* increases overall levels of physical activity and fitness

* reduces physical pain and helps rehabilitation

* helps people cope with physically challenging circumstances

* reduces occurrence of episodes of stress

* reduces reliance on medication

* alleviates symptoms of dementia

SOURCE 12:

UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT
Garden Design to Reduce Stress
https://pss.uvm.edu/ppp/pubs/oh82stress.htm

SOURCE 13:

LIVING COLOUR LANDSCAPES
Using colour therapy in garden design
See:  http://www.livingcolourlandscapes.com.au/using-colour-therapy-in-garden-design/

SOURCE 14:

PUSH DOCTOR – September 2018
6 mental health benefits of plants:
Does Flower Power boost your mood?
https://www.pushdoctor.co.uk/blog/6-mental-health-benefits-of-plants-does-flower-power-boost-your-mood

SOURCE 15:

SUSTAIN – the alliance for better food and farming
Growing Health
https://www.sustainweb.org/growinghealth/

SOURCE 16:

BBC NEWS
Fruit and veg: For a longer life eat 10-a-day
See:  https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-39057146

SOURCE 17:

British Heart Foundation:
https://www.bhf.org.uk/heart-matters-magazine/nutrition/5-a-day/colourful-foods

SOURCE 18:

https://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/10/18/ask-well-does-boiling-or-baking-vegetables-destroy-their-vitamins/

SOURCE 19:

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/raw-veggies-are-healthier/

SOURCE 20:

Nutrition Australia - Eat a Rainbow
http://www.nutritionaustralia.org/national/resource/eat-rainbow

SOURCE 21:

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO FLORAL SCENT
See:  http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/content/48/1/82.full